Maîtrise en droit, LL.M.
de
l'Université du Québec à Montréal

Département des sciences juridiques


Les mémoires des étudiantes et des étudiants des maîtrises en droit


Reiss, Krystyna. 2003. The Ottawa Convention Banning Anti-Personnel Landmines : Did International Non-Governmental Organizations Make a Difference ? / La Convention d’Ottawa sur les mines antipersonnelles : Les organisations non gouvernementales ont-elles fait la différence?


Résumé
Table des matières

RÉSUMÉ


ABSTRACT


This thesis examines the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, which was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations, and hereinafter refereed to as the Ottawa Treaty. It attempts to demonstrate the uniqueness of the Treaty as the first effective and legally binding response to the issue of anti-personnel landmines viewed as a humanitarian law crisis.

This objective is approached from the perspective of the evolution of the spectacular coalition between the international governmental and non-governmental organizations, and like-minded states that led to the signing of the Treaty on 3 December 1997 in Ottawa. Civil society’s involvement in the ban movement and the Treaty negotiating process was an important factor of the Treaty success. Without understanding this involvement it would be impossible to understand such a widespread - by more than a half of the international community of states - commitment to prohibiting the use of anti-personnel landmines.

To this end I analyze the legal foundations of the Ottawa Treaty that could be found in international humanitarian law as they were raised by civil society to define the characteristics of the landmine issue. Subsequently I analyze these legal foundations’ input in the Treaty text.

Simultaneously this thesis introduces a question whether the states/civil society coalition – as a main feature of the Ottawa Treaty process- constitutes a new, more democratic approach to international lawmaking.

 

 

RÉSUMÉ

 

Ce mémoire examine le processus ayant mené à l’adoption en 1997 de la Convention sur l' interdiction de l'emploi, du stockage, de la production et du transfert des mines antipersonnelles et sur leur destruction. Il porte aussi un regard critique sur le contenu de cette Convention, unique en ce qu’elle appréhende le problème des mines antipersonnelles comme un problème de droit humanitaire et non de droit de la guerre et parce qu’elle prévoit pour la première fois des obligations contraignantes pour États signataires dans ce contexte précis.

La Convention, souvent évoquée comme la Convention d’Ottawa, est le résultat des efforts d’une coalition internationale étatique, gouvernementale et non gouvernementale sans précédent. Notre analyse révèle gue l’implication de la société civile dans le processus ayant mené à l’adoption de la Convention d’Ottawa dans sa forme définitive et sous l’angle du droit humanitaire fut déterminante.

Dans un premier temps le mémoire retrace l’histoire politique et juridique du processus d’élaboration du texte de la Convention d’Ottawa dont les racines résident dans le droit humanitaire. Cette perspective s’est avérée fructueuse en raison des efforts consentis par la coalition en faveur de l’élaboration d’un traité destiné à l’interdiction du recours aux mine antipersonnelles.

Ensuite, le mémoire se penche sur l’analyse du texte de la Convention d’Ottawa.

Enfin, et ce de manière transversale, le mémoire pose la question de savoir si le long processus ayant mené à l’adoption de la Convention d’Ottawa peut être décrit comme étant une contribution à la démocratisation de l’élaboration des normes du droit international.



TABLE DES MATIÈRES


 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


ABSTRACT


RÉSUMÉ


TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABBREVIATIONS            


INTRODUCTION

1.   The Ottawa Treaty in Context

2.   Points of Departure

      a) Defining the concepts: ‘civil society’, NGOs and the case of APMs

      b) Understanding the entrance of international NGOs into the Ottawa Process

 

PART ONE: WHY THE NEED FOR THE NEW TREATY?

THE LEGAL FOUNDATIONS


A.  THE DEVELOPMENTS OF IUS IN BELLO

1.   The Concept of Ius in Bello

2.   The Early Treaties

a) The 1864 Geneva Convention and the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg

      b) The 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions

c) Hague Draft Rules concerning the aerial warfare and its effect on non-combatants

d ) The 1925 Geneva Protocol on Poisonous and Asphyxiating Gases

3.   Reinforcing the Protection of Non-Combatants

a) The 1949 Geneva ‘Civilians Convention’

b) Reaffirmation and development of international humanitarian law applicable in

armed conflicts: Additional Protocol I and II to the Geneva Conventions of 1949

A.  REGULATING LANDMINES AS A WEAPON OF SPECIAL CONCERN

1.   The 1955-1956 ICRC Draft Rules

2.   A New Step Forward in International Law: the 1980 UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons

C. LEGITIMACY OF APMs UNDER FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

1.   The System of Rules Applicable to Landmines

2.   Landmines as causing superfluous injury and excessive suffering

3.   The ability of landmines to discriminate

4.   The utility of landmines

 

PART TWO: THE INTERNATIONAL BAN OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES

A.  THE BACKGROUND INITIATIVES

1. Strengthening the Conventional Weapons Convention and Its Landmines Protocol

     a) The postulates

     b) From Geneva to Ottawa

 2. Enforcing the Coalition

     a) The ‘Ottawa Core Group’: maintaining the integrity

     b) Drafting the Treaty: commonality of views

B.  THE OTTAWA TREATY DISSECTED

1.   The Issues of Special Concern

a) The scope of the Treaty

b    b) Problems with some definitions

 2. The Core Prohibitions

a) The prohibition on the use of APMs

b) The prohibition on the development of APMs

c) The prohibition on ‘inciting’ a violation

 3. The Obligation of Mine Destruction

      a) The destruction of stockpiled APMs

      b) Clearance and destruction of emplaced APMs

4. The Exceptions to the Core Prohibitions and Obligations

5. The Supplementary Obligations

      a) International technical cooperation and assistance. Victims assistance

      b) Verification and compliance with the Convention. Transparency measures

      c) National implementation measures

6. Reservations and Withdrawal

 

EPILOG

 

APPENDICES

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY